Factors Effecting Selection Decisions

The goal of selection is to eliminate those who are found to be unqualified to meet the job and organizational requirement from the large pool of persons who are available and willing to work.

There are a number of factor's, which affect the selection decision:

  1. Profile matching
  2. Organizational and social environment
  3. Successive hurdles
  4. Multiple correlations

1. Profile Matching: A tentative decision as to how a candidate should be i.e. what should be his qualification, how he should score on the tests, what experience he should have etc. should be taken in advance. These would serve as a standard to decide the success or failure of other candidate's at each stage. Care is also taken to match the bio-data of the candidate with the job specification i.e. whether the information that candidate has provided in the bio-data would serve the job specifications e.g. computer knowledge. If the candidate does not possess it and it is an essential specification, then we can reject the candidate.

2. Organization and Social Environment: The candidates specifications must match with, not only the job specification but also with the organization and social environmental requirements, otherwise they may fail to fit into the organization. e.g. Voluntary organization if the candidate is looking for good salary he may not fit here.

3. Successive Hurdles: There are hurdles at every stage, which the candidate must successfully pass at each screening device.

Fig. Successive Hurdles in Selection Process

4) Multiple Correlations: This is based on the assumption that a deficiency in one factor can be counter balanced by an excess amount of another. Therefore after all the examinations are conducted and the scores are obtained a composite test score index is taken to make the final decision.

Steps In Selection Procedure

1) Job analysis, (2) Recruitment, (3) Application Form (4) Written Examination (5) Preliminary Interview (6) Business games, (7) Tests (8) Final interview (9) Medical Examination (10) Reference checks (11)Line Management Decision (12) Employment:

  1. Job analysis: It is analysis of a job as to what it entails. It would provide information on what are the job duties and responsibilities of the incumbent and would provide information on what sort of a candidate would be most suitable for a particular job.
  2. Recruitment: It is a process of searching the prospective employees from both the internal sources and the external source and motivating them to apply for the jobs. It develops the applicant's pool and serves as a base for selection procedure.
  3. Application Blank or Form: This helps in securing information from a prospective applicant. It. provides preliminary information about the applicant, and many companies have their.own style of application blank depending on the kind of information they are looking for. It also depends upon the size of the organization, nature of Business activities, type and level of the job etc. Most often, the applications are made out on a blank paper. The information that can be obtained from the application form is: 1) personal. background information, educational qualifications I attainment (3) work experience (4) salary (5) Personal details (6) reference etc. It also indicates the interests, attitudes and hobbies etc. It is a good means of quickly collecting verifiable data and an accurate, basic historical data from the candidate. Can be used for later reference and can be circulated among important people for discussion.
  4. Written examination: Some organizations conduct written examination after they screen the qualified candidates on the basis of the application blanks. It enables them to measure the candidate's abilities, attitudes; aptitude, reasoning ability, knowledge etc.
  5. Preliminary Interview: This is conducted by an assistant in the personnel department. The main aim is to gain necessary information about the applicant and also assess him in the suitability to the job. The information obtained is matched to the information provided in the application blank. regarding education experience, salary expected, aptitude towards the job, age, physical appearance and other physical requirements etc. here, the undesirable and unsuitable candidate can be eliminated. They are known as stand-up interviews or sizing-up screening interviews. The candidate also gets a more or less clearer picture about the company.
  6. Business Games: Here the participants are placed in hypothetical work situation and are required to play the role that is expected of him in that work. Mostly used for management trainees, executive trainees and managerial personnels. They help to evaluate the applicants in the areas of decision-making, identifying the potentials, handling the situation, problem solving skills, and human relations skills.
  7. Tests: The psychological test is an objective and standardized measure of a candidate's behaviour from which inferences for future behaviour and performance can be drawn. By using a psychological tests all job seekers, will get an equal opportunity without any discrimination against sex, caste, etc. It plays an important role in the selection procedure.
  8. Final Interview: At this stage the person who is at the top of the organization is involved. By now a clear picture of the candidate's personality, ability, suitability has evolved and the decision is more or less made. The short listed candidates are interviewed here for making a final decision on the selection. They may be a Board or Panel of interviewers who are assessing the candidate and give a final opinion.
  9. Medical examination: There is a need of certain-physical qualities for certain jobs like clear vision, perfect hearing, unusual stamina, tolerance for hard working conditions, clear tone, inflections etc. A physical examination reveals these (Military, police etc.).
Purpose is:
  1. To indicate whether the candidate is physically fit for the job or medically suited for certain jobs.
  2. It indicates existing disabilities so that in case of any calamity, the organization is not to be blamed, The psychological attitude likely to interfere with work, efficiency or future attendance.
  3. Prevent employees who suffer from contagious diseases.
  4. Can properly place people who are otherwise employable like physically handicapped for suitable jobs.
  5. The physical measurements like height, weight, chest measurement and abdominal circumferences are taken
  6. All the senses of the candidate are checked. and corrective measures are also suggested like vision, auditory, obesity etc.
  7. Check-up of blood pressure, heart and lungs, laboratory test of urine, blood, x-rays etc are also done.
10) Reference Check: Through this we obtain a great amount of information about the person. This is done after the completion of the interview and medical examination. Here the candidate gives the names of some people who are familiar of his achievements and character etc., or sometime, the previous employers can also write a testimonial on his job performance or even a co-worker can do some peer rating. The  opinion of the previous employees and people who know the candidate for a long time i.e. his family friends, college, university teacher etc. or even friends are a good source of information in getting an appropriate picture about the candidate. It is important as reference includes the length of period of acquaintance and in what capacity the referees know the candidate. The checks on references are made by mail or telephone and sometimes in person (i.e. the candidate at the time of applying or even after the selection is done is bound to give some references along with the complete address and telephone numbers.

However, these check are done in a routine manner and are treated casually because it is often felt that no acquaintance of the candidate gives an unfavourable opinion of him. But a good reference check is actually an important source of information if an objective evaluation is to be done.

11) Final Decision by the line manager: However, the line manager is the final decision maker as to whether to select or reject a candidate. His decision is very important because of the economic, behavioural or social implication it would have for selecting a particular candidate. A careless decision of selecting or rejecting a candidate who makes or breaks the organization will effect the morale of the employee i.e. if good candidates are selected, then the other employees are encouraged and if ineffective candidates are selected, the selection procedure is suspected. A proper understanding, between the line managers and personnel managers should be established to make a proper decision.

12) Employment: Thus after the final decision is taken the organization has to intimate their decision to the candidate by sending the appointment order.

Finally the effectiveness of any selection programme will be visible only when the most suitable candidate is chosen from among the prospective applicants and when they are performing their jobs efficiently and sincerely-with commitment.

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