Types of Thinking

Psychologist told about the following types of thinking:

  1. Perceptual Thinking: this kind of thinking is observed/present in animals and kids. Base of this kind of thinking is obvious knowledge. Here sensation and obviousness works. A person thinks after seeing an object or condition. In this any kind of word or name is not used. This kind of thinking is based on past experiences. For example, a child burnt by fire, afraid by watching fire again. In the same way when a child does not complete home work, then he is afraid of punishment, his fear involves thinking. This thinking is of primary stage.
  2. Imaginative Thinking: In this kind of thinking there is no object or condition is present obviously. There is lack of apparent. Here past experiences are used through memory and thinking is made through mental talent. As objects are not present obviously, objects are imagined with the help of efforts. For example, every day father get something for child while return to the home at evening therefore at the time of evening child waits for father and think about the object. It is imaginary thinking.
  3. Conceptual Thinking: It is the best kind of thinking. Earlier established is used in conceptual thinking. First of all thoughts are tied with sense perception. Slowly they reached to the concepts and the person reaches to a conclusion by keeping the future in mind by thoroughly inspecting an object or situation on the basis of past experience. To understand conceptual thinking it is also important to know about ‘concept knowledge’. 
  4. Logical Thinking: It is the most outstanding form of thinking. Divi defined it as ‘Reflective Thinking’. To understand the complicated process of thinking, it is important to study concept establishment, argument and problem solution subjects.

Tools of Thinking

Often some kind of problems may arise during finding solution of a problem like, diversion of mind due to various stimulations or to be restless etc. help of some tools is to be taken to defeat these problems, these are called main tools of thinking. These are as following:

  1. Image: person sees the object in his practical life creates an image of it within his mind. According to Mr. Drever, “image is the knowledge in the absent of object, which have fixe in our sense perception in beginning.” Different images related to different sensations form within the mind of a person. Like, touch, sight, hate, audition, smell and taste related images of sensations. Generally sight imaging is considered as chief imaging amongst all these sensations Raus said: “primary memory images can be considered as substitute to real sense perception”. For example when I see a book then it is a sensation, but if I close my eyes then I see the book again and now it is a visual. One of the important sign of visuals is that it is realized as it is not present for senses. These images are called as tools of thinking. There is a question present in relation to image is, what is the role of image in thinking? Are they mediator activities in thinking? Some scholars have supported it and some opposed it. To answer this question, psychologists have made sober experiments on the importance of images in thinking.
  2. Symbols and Signs: Symbols or signs are also helpful as the means of thinking. These are presented as picture, words or by the means of objects. Symbol is the sensation that represents the objects in its absence. Like, our thinking is totally different while we see the Red, Yellow and Green signals at traffic crossing. Psychologist Woodworth defined symbolic means in thinking with an example as: “if you are explaining how your car get collide with another car, then you say : it is a road and it is another road, assume that this book is my car and the second book is second car”, here two types of objects and words are used as the symbol in place of the absent object. Book and the said place indicate the symbol of incident and these words ‘my car and another car’ are the oral signs that indicate the absent objects. Thus we see words and picture are the means of thinking.
  3. Language: language is the primary means of thinking. We establish relation between image and thought. A person presents his thoughts with the help of language. Every word of the language is a definite perception-symbol of an image or concept. Person with higher language-knowledge will have higher percentage of success in thinking. More description on language and thing is made ahead.
  4. Concept: Concept is an important base of thinking. Concept is also called general notion. In the construction of general concepts mind brought out the prominent values involve in the individual images, mixes it with the general values involve in it. Thus we see in the formation of concept equalization and differentiation have important role. Form of concept and concept-formations will be defined ahead.

Language and Thinking

Language forms the thinking. Language is an important tool of thinking. Person thinks with the help of language. Language is the means to express thinking clearly. Some psychologist called thinking as inner speech. The person having more language-power or word-power can express his thinking in easy and clear way. Language may be verbal or symbolic. Often people debate on a difficult problem or express through hand or face posture. 

It indicates that a form of language is used in thinking. Various forms of thinking are coordinated through language. Language is a kind of symbol, through which a person can express or present his emotions and thoughts. A person express his thinking or thought through the words present in his mind. Valentine expressed his thoughts related to language and thinking as: “Language is helpful in the formation of concept. A word became the central ideal, whether it is developed in the form of image or proposed activity or in the form of thinking associate”. For example, when we say the words book, copy or pen individually then he understand the meaning, even these things are not shown to him. He has the image of book in front of his and he has the concept of book. At the time we say ‘book’ he understands that there are pages in the book and is an object of reading. Language is helpful in this kind of thinking. Here the word ‘book’ work as a symbol for book and the help of symbol is taken in thinking process. There is a deep relation between language and thinking and without language thinking is impossible. But some psychologists believe that thinking is possible without language. Usually there are some conditions where we think without the use of language. Sometimes we do not find the right words to express our thoughts. But it is all pervasive that language is very important in thinking. According to this fact there are following works of language in thinking: 

  1. Thoughts are expressed by language.
  2. Language is the means of discussion; thoughts are expressed only with the help of language.
  3. Language is assistance to thinking. 
  4. Formation of concepts is based on language-development.
  5. Language has more importance in concept-thinking. We finally name the general concept at the last mental process of concept formation by using the word or language.
  6. Language is helpful in remembering. 
  7. Language is the means of conservation of thinking. Language minimizes the need of thinking. We can express extensive thoughts in fewer words.
  8. Thinking can be expended by language.
  9. Language helps to concentrate towards thinking. In the process of thinking internal speech is helpful in the situation of indirection. 
In this way we can say that concept and language has close relationship and language and concept has important role in development of thinking. These are the two main tools of thinking.

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