Sources or Causes of Stress

How does stress arouse in the mind of man, psychologists have done deeply study of it. And a schedule of many factors has been prepared by which tension arouse in man, such factors are following:

  1. Stressful events of life
  2. Conflicts of motives
  3. Daily hassles
  4. Stress produced by work
  5. Environmental sources

1. Stressful Events of Life—Different types of events happen in the life of man. Some are pleasant and some are painfully. The important need of these events that man may readjustment with them. It has been identified by the study of psychologists that when a man does not adjust with such events properly, they arouse stress. And physiological and emotional disorder are aroused in man, in this way the study of Holmes and Rahe is important. They have developed a special scale for the measurement of important events of life means they have developed the method of magnitude production, which has been called social readjustment rating scale or SRRS. Different types of events as- the death of husband, wife, divorce, material separation, marriage, illness of the member of family, leave, death of best friend, entrance of new member in family, pregnancy, lost of the member of family, fight with the husband’s relatives, change in the habit if food, minor violation of law are included in this scale. The most stressful has been ranked with the least stress. Life changing value of these events have been decided from 1 to 100. It has been found from the life changing value how much readjustment is needed for a man on account of happening such events, as – death of husband and wife has been told the most stressful events of life, which changing value is 100. In the same the unit value of retirement has been called 45 in the last rank means minor violation of law has been put in 43 rank. which unit value is 1. A man is asked to put tick on those statements among the 43 statements for knowing a special period as- how much stress does he feel in the last one or two years, which is found correct for him during the said period, then the unit value related to statement is added, which is called total stress score. As much as there is total, so the stress is considered in man. 

Generally when the total of man is 250 or more come on this scale on the basis of the events that happen within one year, his life is considered stressful. And there is more possibility of his falling ill within a year. Generally man of getting total score 150 or less than it is considered general, and the man of obtaining total between 150 to 199 is considered as a moderate stress and the man who has obtained the total more than 300,he is considered full of mental stress . Holmes and Masuda have shown it by doing study, the man whose life changing unit value is more than 300 he fell ill seriously within the next nine months, in the comparison of those men whose total score was 200 or under it. It has been found out from these studies how much stressful events happen in the life of man, the more quantity of stress is found in them. And their health is affected by it badly. Although the events- changes of life have been called an important cause of stress, following some facts are such, which has doubts on the called relation.

  • It is difficult to separate the effect that arouse from the stress on some health as- the habit of having special food, habit of smoking, habit of taking alcohol. Man can adjust with the changes that happened in his life that he starts taking more alcohol, or starts smoking cigarette. In such situation, illness that aroused in his body or because of emotional or physiological stages, his health habit will be worse and the important events of life will be reduced.
  • If the changing event is the cause of stress, any events can arouse stress in the mind of men. But this is not fact. It has been seen that some events arouse more stress in the mind of men, but the same events do not arouse stress in the mind of other people. It is also seen that the normal event arouse psychological and physiological decay in some men, but sometimes more stressful events do not arouse psychological physiological decay in men. Such individual differences indicate that it is not logical to consider special event the cause of stress.
  • There are some parts of life scale events, which are considered not as a result but as a cause, as-maternal or economical complication arouse because of decay of emotional or physiological health, which causes stress.
  • It is an important hypothesis of life event scale that change is stressful in itself. But it was identified by the researches that done later that positive changes are not related to health, sometimes it happens that there is stress in men because of not happening changes in life. It is known that no event makes life stressful, it is mostly depended on the personal history and current life situation.
  • After these situations, the changes that happen in life are also the important causes of stress.
2. Conflicts of Motives—When there is conflict between motives, it creates stress in man. In this situation when motive is not satisfied, it create frustration in man, which is the important sources of stress. As- one student, who cannot obtained best marks in the group, he can gain fame by playing game in the field and remove mental conflict from his mind, but there is stress in his mind by thinking that he could not perform well in the field of education. There are some mental conflicts in the life of man, which arouse stress in which support vs competition, independence vs dependence, intimacy vs isolation and impulse expression vs moral standard.
In the same way the desire of living with others and desire of sharing in the weal and woe with others also connected with it. If we do so, we will be given up by our family member and we will be alone. This situation also arouse stress in man in the same way sometimes man is depended on other, but along with he thinks that being adolescence, he should not depend on others it is not good things, this situation also arouse stress in him. some fields as- sex and aggression are such , in which the desire of man moral are faced with normal standards, if man does not accept it, guilt feelings are aroused in him, which becomes the sources of stress.

It is cleared that trial of compromising among the opposites motives also arouse the stress in man.

Kurt Lewin has described the conflict as two opposite inclination- approach and avoidance. When it necessary for a man to select one between two desirable alternatives, it is called approach-approach conflict. Avoidance-avoidance conflict, man is forced to select one between two undesirable alternatives. The third types of conflict is called approach-avoidance conflict, in which a man has to face both types of motives as desirable and undesirable in one choice. It is known from the study that approach- avoidance conflict is the strongest sources of stress among thrice of them.

3. Daily Hassles—The big event of life is the sources of stress definitely, but it is also found that daily hassles arouse stress. Such hassles are found in the life of man all the times, so their importance in arousing stress is not less. This fact is confirmed by the study of Lazarus and their companion and kanner and his followers. Daily hassles that is found in the man all the times, it can be divided into six parts, which are following:

  1. Environmental Hassles—In which noise, sounds, culprits and useless talking with the neighbours are kept.
  2. Household Hassles—In which cooking food, washing the utensils, sweeping the house buying clothes and other things related factors are kept.
  3. Inner Concern Hassles—In which the feeling of loneliness, the feeling of fighting with others, the factors are kept.
  4. Hassles Due to Time—In which the feeling of completing all works within given time, and the factors of performing many responsibilities at a time are kept.
  5. Hassles Arising Due to Financial Responsibility—In which saving, earning related factors and financial responsibility are included, which’s burden should not put on them according to law.
  6. Work Hassles—unsatisfied from job, not having the opportunity of progress in job and the possibility of firing from job all the factors are put in it.
Lazarus and his companions and Kanner and his companions have developed a hassles scale for the measurement of hassles. Man says about those events on this scale, by which he is put in the hassles for last months. Positive correlation was found between the mental traits and obtained total that was shown by man. Hence it is evident that stress is aroused in man due to daily hassles and physiological and psychological illness arises in it.

4. Stress Produced by Work—Which work is done by man. There are some factors related to it, which produce stress in him. As – if one employ is asked to all lot of work at a time, it is naturally that stress will be produced in him. The feeling of burden will be developed in him. Not only this if employ feels that the physical environment of doing work is not proper, means there is no good arrangement of air, light and sound and controlling in it, he will feel job dissatisfaction. Which produce stress in him? In it role-conflict and performance appraisal are important. In the condition of role-conflict, different hopes are developed by different groups of employ from any executive or manager, which is not possible for management to complete it, consequently stress produce in them. For example take the job of kulpati of university, employ demands him for good service condition, teachers force him for maintaining good environment, student demands with him for good education and government force him for doing his work recognizing his resources. Thus it is not possible for him to complete this types of opposite hopes., which produce role-conflict which produce stress in him. In the same way if the way of performing appraisal of employ of such, which is considered by employ proper, it does not create stress in them, but if they consider it that this way is not proper, it will create tension in them. 

When there is more stress on work, and men do get rid of it, a special stage produce in them, which is called Burnout. in which employ look quite hopeless, unsatisfied, incapable for work and psychologically weak. In the last stage of Burnout, man is incapable in doing work. according to Rice- Burnout work is not the trait of work it is the result of unmanaged work stress.

5. Environmental Sources—Environment is also the cause of producing stress. Some environmental factors are such, which are natural and produce stress in men, as- earthquake, storm and swift air etc are some factors, which create stress in men according to Kasl, 1990. Such environmental factors can be studied at that time, when it is found in great quantity. Such natural event arise stress in men. Except these natural factors there are some environmental factors, which are made by men, and produce stress in men. As- noise pollution, situation produce by nuclear test is the example of such factors, by which stress creates in man. Balm and his companions (1983) found in their study, the men who live far from the place, where nuclear is tested, are affected more or stress arises in them more than the men, who live near by it. In the same way Cohen and his companions (1986) have done a study, which motive was to study the effect, which put on the stress of noise. In this experiment the students of school near by busy aero dram are compared with the students of school, which school is suited on a solitary and peaceful place. As a result it was seen that there was more stress in the first school’s student than second school, which is known by their high blood pressure and by the bad performance on standardized tests.

In the last it can be said that stress arises in man due to many reasons, if we think about the strategy of coping it, we will keep these factors in mind.
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