Nature and Definitions of Motivation

Man is an active creature by his nature. He is always engaged in some work, and continues to do some kind of behavior. He does not do any work or behavior without any purpose. And the purpose of his work is to make the fulfillment of some especial goal. For example a student studies with a great zeal and intensity while other is detached from the study. What is the cause of it? This type of question arises— Why do we take food? Why do we earn money? Why do we take education? It can be found in the answer of these questions that there are some motives for the action and behavior of any person, which motivates him, for doing action and behavior in different situations.

Krech and Krachfi eld has said clearly—The question of motivation is the question of why. In fact Needs, Driver, Incentive, Motive are the main sources of motivation. Hilguard has written—“the need gives birth to driver, the driver is the condition of developed intensity, which progresses toward the action and starting behavior. Stimulus is some thing related to external environment, which satisfies the needs and in this way diminish the driver by action.’’ The motivator can be understood in the same words of needs, desires, intensity, natural situation, decisive qualities, habits, interests, stable incentive. In short motivation is the creation of above four facts: need, driver, stimulus and complex organization.

Nature and Definitions of Motivation

The English word Motivation is originated from the Motum word of Latin language. According to the general and verbal meaning of motivation, move, motor and motion we can call any stimulus a motivation, which helps a person for reacting and behavior. This type of stimulus can be both internal and external. But from the scientific point of view, motivation is an internal power, which internally motivates a person for doing any action. This type of motivation can be called the driving power of physical instrument. The following definitions have been presented for explaining the psychological meaning of the word motivation:

  1. Wood worth—Achievement = Ability + Motivation. Means Achievement is obtained by ability + motivation. The ability of a person is developed by getting motivation. This type of ability is possible by the achievement of motivation. 
  2. According to Lowell—“motivation may be defined more formally as a psychological or internal process, initiated by some need, which leads to an activity which will satisfy that need.’’
  3. According to Good—“Motivation is the process of arousing sustaining and regulation activities.’’
  4. According to Blare, Johns and Simpson—“Motivation is a process, in which a learner’s internal energies or needs are directed towards various goals and objects in his environment.’’
  5. According to P.T Young—“Motivation is the process of arousing action, sustaining the activities in the progress and regulating the pattern of activity.’’

After analyzing the above definitions, related to motivation the following things are clarified:

  1. Motivation is psychophysical or internal process or stage.
  2. Motivated process is originated due to any need.
  3. Motivated process leads towards the direction of doing any important activity.
  4. This process goes on till the attainment of any purpose.
In the psychological context, the meaning of motivation is by the internal stimulus, as a consequence of which we do any action and behavior. Psychologists have not concluded external stimulus under motivation. For example hunger is such an internal stimulus, according to which we can be inspired for having the food, so hunger can be called motivation. A person can be inspired for having the food after seeing the plate of food. Here the plate is an external stimulus, but eating process did not get inspired. A man will not take the food, until he gets internal motivation, so we can say internal stimulus, which motivates a man for doing any activity, is called motivation. Motivator is more important in the motivation. So it is essential to throw light on the meaning and definition of motivator.

Motivator- Meaning and Definition

The meaning of motivator—In the action and behavior of a human being, inborn, natural and acquired instincts are hidden. These instincts inspire for behavior, so psychologists have called it motive. So we can say that the motivation instinct lies in the root of human behavior, which inspire a man for doing some activities.

The word motive should be understood by the definition given by the psychologists. Motivation is a mental set and motivator is a factor which motivates a man for doing some especial action. So we can say that motivation tells about the situation and motivators are due to its reason.

The definitions of motivator- For explaining the concept of motivator, the psychologists have given many definitions of motivator:

(1) Shaffer and others—“A motive may now be defined as a tendency to activity initiated by a drive and concluded by an adjustment.’’ This definition is evident by an example- In the state of hunger there is a contraction in the layers of stomach, and a man feels intensity on his internal side. And getting ride of this confusing stage he searches for eating material. His searching goes on until after getting the food he quenches his hunger. In this example the state of hunger is motivation. And the cause of state of hunger is called hunger motive. From this point of view the function of motivator tendency are: 
  • Arousing the activity,
  • And continue it,
  • And continue to lead it towards the definite dimension until he gets the goal.
According to the above definition hunger drives and inspires for having the food. And hunger drive comes to an end after having the food. And there is difference between the motivator tendency and motivation of food. Motivator is an extended word under which need, motive, driver and incentive all come.

(2) Gates and others—“Motives take a variety of forms and are designated by many different terms, such needs, desires, tensions, sets determining tendencies, attitudes, interests, persisting stimuli and soon.’’

(3) Wood worth—“A motive is a state or set of the individual which disposes him for certain behavior and seeking certain goals.’’

(4) MacDougal—“Motives are conditions physiological and psychological within the organism that dispose it to an act in certain ways.’’

(5) Gilford—‘’A motive is any particular internal factor or condition that tends to initiate and to sustain activity.’’

(6) J. Drever—"Motive is an effective - conative factor which operates in determining the direction of an individual’s behavior towards an end or goal, consciously apprehended or unconscious.’’

(7) Thomson—"Motive is an effective and conative factor which operates in determining the direction of an individual’s behavior towards an end or goal, consciously apprehended or unconscious.’’

The sides of Motivation

We can say on the basis of above definitions that the initiation of motivation is by some need and end after the attainment of any goal. Motivation is an extended word. There are the three sides of motivation, which are following:
  1. Need
  2. Drive
  3. Incentive
1. Need—There are some fundamental needs for sustaining the life of every creature, And it is necessary to fulfill them. As it is necessary to fulfill the needs of water, air, food, sleeping. If these physical needs are not met, tension and imbalance arouse in the body, as a consequence of which he becomes activated. For example being hungry, activeness is sustained in a man until he gets his food. After getting the food his need is completed. And his tension and his activeness come to an end. Giving the definition of need Boring and Langefield have said-“A need is tension within an organism which tends to organize the field or organism with respect to certain incentives of goals and incite activity directed toward their attainment.’’

Therefore, the psychologists have also said need, such as a condition, which is felt in the reduction and absence of any thing. Man is always active to complete this reduction. As for the fulfillment of consumption of eating material he tries to get the food, he searches for water for the fulfillment of water; here the reduction of water and eating material is the needs of water and food.

2. Drive—The stage of tension that arises due to the needs of creature is called drive. Thus need is 
generated by the drive—As-thirst-drive, by the need of water and hunger-drive originated, by the need of food. The feeling of hunger and thirst is an internal stimulus. This generates tension in the man. A man does action for having food and quenching the thirst. Thus to inspire for doing action is the chief characteristics of drive. Psychologists have given the definitions of drive in this way:

  • Deshiyal—“Drive is original source of energy that activates the human organism.’’
  • Sheffar and others—“A drive is a strong, persistent, stimulus that demands an adjusting response.’’
3. Incentive—Incentive is a thing of external environment, which satisfies the drives after fulfilling the need. For example—hunger is a drive, which is satisfied by the food. Therefore food is an incentive for ‘hunger- drive’. According to Hillgard-“In general, an appropriate incentive is one that can reduce the intensity of a drive.’’The internal stage of a man is indicated by the need and drive, while incentive is presented in the external environment. In the words of Boring and Lang field, “an incentive may be defined as an object, a situation or an activity which excites, maintains and directs behavior.’’

Relation among Need, Drive and Incentive

There is a close relationship in these parts of motivation. Hillgard has cleared the need drive incentive formula. How does this formula work, has been clarified very well after the understanding of the meaning of these thrice. Hillgard has written about the close relationship of these three. “Need gives rise to drive state which is a drive of heightened tension leading to activity and preparatory behavior and the incentive in the external environment that satisfies the need and thus reduce the drive through consummators activity.’’

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