Methods of Resolving the Conflicts and Tension Reduction

Due to the emotional instability, extreme un-satisfaction and mental conflict or due to the excess stress person starts loosing his mental balance. In such stage to avoid these harmful events person starts getting some securing activities these are to be defined under upcoming solutions. Psychologist Cameron, Saffore and Shohev told about two kinds of adjustments: protective methods and Escaping methods. The main function of protective method is to protect the ego of person. Main objective of escaping methods is to get person out of the stressful situation and help him in personal adjustment. This personal adjustment is appropriate from the view of person, but not from social view, because person is only called adjusted when his behavior is according to the measurements of society. Here we are explaining about protective methods of adjustment. Psychologist Cameron defines about following five protective methods:

  1. Attention Getting.
  2. Identification.
  3. Compensation
  4. Rationalization.
  5. Projection
From the View of convenience all the methods can be divided in following four parts:

  1. Direct Methods
  2. Indirect Methods
  3. Compensatory Methods
  4. Aggressive Methods
Now each of the above is defined as following:

(a) Direct methods—Direct methods of reducing stress are those in which a person makes efforts in his consciousness/awaking stage. He use his logical power to use these methods. Some direct methods are following:

1. To Finish or Eradicate Hindrances—Person try to eradicate or completely destroy those barriers in consciousness form, which occur during his way to accomplish his needs or reaching his goal. In this way by eradicating hindrances a person can succeed in achieving his goals and his mental stress disappears. For instance, when a child could not solve the complete question paper in exam and could not get success due to his slow writing speed, which increases his mental stress day by day. Slow writing speed is the barrier in his success. Therefore he eradicates this hindrance by improving his writing speed by continuous practice and get succeed. It reduces his mental stress. If we deeply study daily life of a person then we will find that he uses this method most. 
2. Find Alternatives—When a person could not eliminate the barriers of his way then he found new way. When he get success by finding another way then, his metal stress disappears automatically. 

3. Attention Getting Mechanism—Child use this since the beginning of life. 

According to Shekhar and Shoven, “Attention-getting is an act that makes person the focus of other people’s behavior.

When a person feel himself neglected then he use this method to attract other people towards him. By this method he wants others to pay attention to him. It is the psychological need of person that he should be appreciated by others. Often the children could not get care from parents or treated as neglected in society use this method. This method can be seen in behavior related problems of flaws, which create difficulty in social adjustment, means this method is more faulty/defected.

4. Re-establishment of Other Objectives—When a person does not get success in achieving his goal after making all his possible efforts, then he adopts second objective which is almost same to the previous one that can be easily achieved. This re-established objective reduces his stress till some extent. For instance, students have the will to be professor in his college, but due to some problems if he could not be professor in college then satisfy him with being lecturer in the college. It provides him some mental relaxation and stress decreases to some extent.

5. Analysis and Decision—When there are more than one contrary desires or destinations a conflict arises within him and results mental stress. It is difficult for him choose between alternatives. He analysis all aspects of all the alternatives using his past experiences and choose which he finds most appropriate.

(b) Indirect methods—Indirect methods of reducing stress are those that a person adopts in unconscious form. For avoiding mental instability due to stress and feeling unwind. These methods are called Defense Mechanisms. These defense mechanisms are the attempts for getting adjustment through unconscious mind and an attempt for killing mental conflicts. Personality can be adjusted in various ways. Mental stress born by internal conflicts can be reduced by defense mechanism. Some of defense mechanisms are discussed below, which are helpful in reducing stress:

1. Sublimation—Sublimation is that mental process of an unconscious mind within which basic reacting power or sentimental powers, turns pashvik requirements or desires towards an artificial direction which is acceptable by society. For instance, sex-tendency of a person moves towards formation of artistic behavior, music, religion and spirituality. This rectifies basic behavior. Mr. Frayed is devotee of this belief.

2. Withdrawal—Often person deduct himself from the sources arising distress or stress or withdraw himself. Such person is called withdrawer. These people do not hurt others, but when their withdrawal becomes extraordinarily unsocial then they feel very difficult to be adjusted. For instance when a child is teased or insulted by his friends in class, then it is possible that he try to keep himself away from others. If his behavior becomes extraordinary then it will be very difficult for him to be adjusted. Therefore withdrawal should to happen to some extent only. Withdrawal can be seen in following two ways: 

  • Regression—Actually regression is the reaction of the activities that a person could not understand in his life which is based on the reaction of childhood. It means when stress arises due to dissatisfaction then he returns back to his past experience for avoiding unhappy experience. For instance an old man behaves like a child, such as starts crying, shouting, stammering, etc.
  • Day-Dreaming—Day-dreaming is the process in which a person lives in the world of imagination by forgetting his present unpleasant happiness. With the help of day-dreaming a person gets pleasant feeling by imagining his failure as success and thus reduces his stress to some extent. For example a child constantly failing can see himself as passing in best grades or holding a higher post. In day-dreaming a person sometimes feels himself as a hero and sometime as a looser. The person thus gets an instable happiness. But the excess of day-dreaming lacks in adjustment. 
3. Identification—Identification is an ordinary stage of adjustment. This tendency can be found in most of the people. When a person get failed in a particular field and have lack of ability then he identify with a successful and able person means feel his abilities within himself. For example Mohan is dull and is weak in sports, but his father is a professor in a college who always passed with good score and was a good player, so he introduces himself as the son of an intelligent professor, instead of his personal qualities as he is afraid. Identification reduces personal feelings and inferiority remains away. Identification is only good to reduce inferiority and stress, but when it affects social behavior then it is dangerous. 

4. Becoming Dependent—When a person gets failed even after making continues efforts then he handover his responsibilities to solve his problems to a much intelligent and powerful person. This attempt reduces his mental stress and along with it a combined attempt of both make problem solving easy and dependent person get more benefit. 

5. Rationalization—To understand the process of rationalization it will be better to understand it as famous phrase ‘Sour grapes’. when a person get failed in any field he gets a less painful reason rather than real cause. For example getting late for school he tries to evade mental stress. 

6. Repression—Person wants to forget his bad experiences for reducing stress. Thus, he suppresses his basic desires and wants who are in anti-social form, which is requiring a momentum for its presentation. Suppress means not presenting wills and desires. It is believed that behaviors based on inherent factors are often unsocial. They include the opponent factors of morality and respect. Society does not allow the presentation of this kind of behavior freely. it is controlled by society to some extent. For example, if there is no social control over the lewdness of a person then he may do many offensive acts and at that time there will be no idol of society will remain. Therefore a person suppresses his anti-social wills. But the process of repression is not good, because due to this other behavioral flaws arise. 

7. Projection—Often it is seen that a person blames other factors of surrounding or people for his own failure, here it is right to say that ‘naach na jaane aangan Tedha’. For example, on not selecting for a post, a person said that I was able for it, but selection committee did partiality. In the same way on getting failed student blame test-paper and examiner for it. 

8. Reversal Formation—The function of reversal formation is to keep away mental conflict. It is that activity of unconscious mind, which creates such behavior, interest, thoughts and feelings in conscious mind against the partially suppressed wills. For instance, a person argues about moral ideas to suppress his extreme sex tendency and pretends his hate for it.

(c) Compensatory Methods—Often when a person get failed in a particular field or realizes drawbacks within him then he try to get success in some other area or to make more efforts in the same field to demolish his limitations. It reduces his mental stress. Crow and Crow define compensation as “Compensation may be defined as the utilization of extra energy in the development of a trait or traits to alleviate the tension caused by a real or imagined defect.”

A person compensates both in direct and indirect way. Direct way for compensation is that in which a person get success in the same by striving hard. For example a weak student became a good one by constant study. The indirect method of compensation is that, where one gets failed in a particular area but get success in another field. Thus his feeling of inferiority raised by failure in first area gets away and his mental stress get reduced. Example, A weak student compensate himself by being a good sportsperson, speaker or actor. Often all the people can be seen in compensation from practical life to another field. Wearing high heels by short height person, use of more cosmetics by less beautiful person and wearing bold cloths etc. are the compensating methods. Here reader can ask that more beautiful person also use cosmetics and bold dress then what do they compensate? Here it can be said that they may be beautiful for others but they themselves believe that they are less beautiful than someone else. But it is a fact that less beautiful person man or woman uses more cosmetics and bends towards fashion than more beautiful person. 

(d) Aggressive Methods—Aggressive method refers to that method in which a person damages to the person or to the factor which is creating barrier in his want satisfaction and thus tries to reduce his mental stress. Aggression may be of two kinds, direct and indirect. Direct aggression is that, in which a person only attacks on the person or factor who/which is responsible for his unsatisfaction. For example a students who wants to do cheating but invigilator stops him in doing so means, he is barrier in his goal accomplishment, then student attacks on invigilator only. Here the objective cheating is not completing hence the tendency to attack arises. Indirect aggression is that in which a person attacks on another person or thing while he is unsatisfied. It is called displacement of aggression also. Such as, the above student does not attack on invigilator but fights with friend or brother after exam and thus reduces his stress. Sometimes person punish himself also it is called inter-directed aggression/attack. Inter-directed aggression is mostly seen in women, children and weak peoples. When kids get failed in something they bite themselves or chop their shirt. In the same way women and weak people when failed in something or insulted by someone beat themselves. This can reduce stress but it has dangerous Sid effects. 

Therefore this method can’t be contemplated as a good method. Various methods such as desired surrounding and catharsis etc. are there other than above said methods which can reduce stress and person can be well-adjusted.


  • Person has to face various favorable and unfavorable situations. Everybody try to adjust himself according his ability. Some of them defeat unfavorable situations and some of them loss their mental stability after defeated by them. This kinds of people becomes the victim of stress or un-satisfaction, mental-conflicts and frustration. 
  • Only necessities inspire a person for goal accomplishment and he moves forward. When person easily achieve his objectives then he find pleasure. But when he has to face difficulties on the way then he finds it a horrible experience, which is called as frustration. In the same way when a person has to face the powers against his wills and interest in that situation a mental conflict arises within him. Thus as a result of frustration and mental-conflicts, mental stress arises. Because of the frustration a certain kind of fluctuation get birth within the mind of a person, for eliminating this he tries to eliminate barriers. If he get success into eliminate these difficulties by remaining within the boundary of situations and creativity, then he establishes adjustment with environment. If the person gets failed in it and adopts erroneous way then it gives birth to Maladjusted.
  • When a person get failed in achieving his goals by removing hindrances even after making huge efforts then it makes him unhappy and feels failure or disappointment, it is called frustration in the language of psychology.
  • When a person has to choose one out of two opposite objects then he has to face conflict. For instance a student whose BA final year exams are going to be started next week, he gets an appointment letter in the same week for a job. In such a situation he likes exam as well as job, but finds difficult to choose one of the two alternatives. Some kind of instability arises within his mind. What to do? The situation in which he is, it is called mental conflict in the language of psychology.
  • Psychologist Cameron, Saffore and Shohev told about two kinds of adjustments: Defensive methods and Escaping methods. The main function of defensive method is to protect the ego of person. Main objective of escaping methods is to get person out of the stressful situation and help him in personal adjustment. This personal adjustment is appropriate from the view of person, but not from social view, because person is only called adjusted when his behavior exits within the measurements of society. 

0 komentar:

Posting Komentar

Scroll To Top