Meaning of Creativity

Everyday there are new inventions in this age of scientific, technological and industrial development. Where there is tireless effort of the scientists behind the majority of these inventions, their creativity has not contributed any less. Earlier it was believed that only writers, poets, painters, musician etc. were only the creative people, however it is now believed that creativity can be expressed in all spheres of human life.
In fact creativity is found in all livings beings in the world, some have less of it and some have more. In order to make the human life convenient, to do new inventions and to find solutions of problems, creativity plays an important role.

Creative people are required in today’s complex and troublesome world. It has become a need of the nation to look out for creative people in order to have the scientific and technological achievements. Present chapter describes the meaning, and the methods of measuring creativity.

Meaning of Creativity

Various psychologists have defined creativity in various ways. Some main definitions of creativity are as follows:

According to DeHann and Havinghurst, “Creativity is the quality, that provokes a person towards the production of a new and desirable thing. This new thing can be new to the whole society or may be just for the person who produced.”

In words of Dravehel, “Creativity is that human ability by which he can express any thought or creation.”

According to psychologists Crow & Crow, “Creativity is a mental process of expressing original outcomes.”

In the words of Cole & Bruce, “Creativity the ability and the process to understand, express and appreciate the human mind in form of original product.”

It is evident from the analysis of above definitions that creativity is primarily related to originality and newness. Creativity aims at the effort of looking at the problems in a new way and finding solution. In other words, creativity is the ability which enables a person to think and reflect in a new way to find a smart solution for any problem. Aside from the popular ways, the ability of working and reflecting in a new way is the creativity. 

Elements of Creativity

By looking and analyzing the definitions of creativity, we come to know that creativity could be understood in context of sensibility, curiosity, imagination, originality, searching, flexibility, fluency and elaboration etc. All these synonymous traits of creativity appear in scientific researches, artworks, music, creation, writing and poetry, painting etc creative works. There are four main elements of creativity:

(i) Fluency—By fluency we mean the multiple solutions on a problem. Fluency can further be divided into four divisions, Ideational Fluency, Expressional Fluency, Associative Fluency and Word Fluency. In the ideational fluency the free outpouring of ideas is encouraged, like telling the possible titles of a story, the uses of some item, or telling the ways to improve something. In the expressional fluency, the free outpouring of human expressions is encouraged, like making a sentence out of the given four words, or complete the given incomplete sentence. Associative fluency means to establish the association among the given words and things, like write synonyms and antonyms of the given word. 

Word fluency is associated with words, like make words of the given suffixes and prefixes. The fluency of any creative test on any item by someone is often expressed by the number of responses over that item. In order to know the fluency score on a test, all fluency marks are added. 

(ii) Flexibility—Flexibility means the variation in the responses or alternatives on given problem. This tells how much mutually different are the answers or the alternatives from one another that are presented by the person. The three dimensions of flexibility could be – Figural Spontaneous Flexibility, Figural Adaptive Flexibility, and Semantic Spontaneous Flexibility. Figural Spontaneous Flexibility means the flexibility in the solutions of improving any figure or an object. Figural Adaptive Flexibility means the flexibility in the methods of changing the form of an object or a figure into another. Semantic Spontaneous Flexibility means the flexibility in the uses of words or objects. Flexibility can be expressed by a person’s different types of responses at any item on the test of creativity. In order to know the flexibility score of any person on a test, his flexibility marks on different items are added. 

(iii) Originality—Originality means the uncommonness of the responses or alternatives presented by the person. It is observed how much different are the given responses or alternatives from popular responses and alternatives. In other words the originality is primarily related to newness. The person who presents the different alternatives from others is said to be original. Telling the new uses of a thing, writing titles of a story, poetry or an article, forecasting remote outcomes of changes, to discover some new symbols are all examples of originality. 

(iv) Elaboration—By elaboration we mean the elaborate explanations of given thoughts or emotions, completion or presentation. There are two kinds of elaboration, Semantic Elaboration or Figural Elaboration. In the semantic elaboration, some brief event, process, or work situation could be asked, to be expanded, where as in the Figural Elaboration, a complete and meaningful figure is to be rendered out of incomplete figure or line by adding something. 

The Criteria of Creative Personality 

Torrance created a list of 84 personality traits of a creative personality after extensively studying the behaviors of many creative people. In the measurement of creativity, these 84 traits of creative personality can play an important role. These eighty four traits are below:

  1. Accepts Disorder
  2. Adventurous
  3. Strong Affection
  4. Awareness to Others
  5. Attraction to Disorder
  6. Attempts Difficult Jobs 
  7. Constructive Criticism 
  8. Deep and Conscientious Conventions 
  9. Altruistic 
  10. Always Baffled by Something
  11. Attracted to Mysterious Discoveries
  12. Bashful Outwardly
  13. Courageous
  14. Defines Conventions of Courtesy
  15. Defines Conventions of Health 
  16. Desire to Excel
  17. Determination 
  18. Differentiated Value-hierarchy
  19. Discontented
  20. Disturbs Organization
  21. Dominant
  22. Emotional
  23. Emotionally Sensitive 
  24. Energetic
  25. A Fault Finder
  26. Does not fear being thought differently
  27. Full of Curiosity 
  28. Appears self-satisfied at times
  29. Likes Solitude
  30. Feels whole parade is out of step
  31. Independence in Judgment 
  32. Independence in Thinking 
  33. Individualistic
  34. Intuitive
  35. Industrious 
  36. Introversive
  37. Lacks business ability
  38. Makes Mistakes 
  39. Never Bored
  40. Not hostile or Negativistic
  41. Not Popular
  42. Oddities of habits
  43. Persistent 
  44. Becomes Preoccupied 
  45. Preference for Complex Ideas 
  46. Non-conformity
  47. Keeps unusual Hours 
  48. A questioning ability 
  49. Radical 
  50. Receptive to External Stimuli
  51. Receptive to Ideas of Others
  52. Regresses Occasionally
  53. Rejection of Suppression as a mechanism of Impulse control
  54. Rejection of Repression 
  55. Resolute 
  56. Reserved 
  57. Self Aware 
  58. Self Confident 
  59. Self Sufficient 
  60. Sense of Humor 
  61. Sensitive to Beauty 
  62. Sincere 
  63. Shuns Power
  64. Self Assertive 
  65. Self Starter
  66. Sense of Destiny 
  67. Not Interested in Small Details 
  68. Speculative 
  69. Spirited in Disagreement 
  70. Strives for distant Goals 
  71. Stubborn 
  72. Temperamental 
  73. Tenacious 
  74. Tender Emotions 
  75. Timid 
  76. Thorough
  77. Unconcerned about Power 
  78. Somewhat Uncultured and Primitive 
  79. Unsophisticated na├»ve 
  80. Unwilling to accept anything on mere say to 
  81. Visionary
  82. Versatile 
  83. Willing to take risks 
  84. Somewhat withdrawn and Quiescent

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