History of Intelligence Tests

As two men look different in their color, physique, height, and weight, so they are different in mental abilities. It is important in the field of education to study the differences in mental abilities. Keeping in mind the differences of the mental abilities of students, teachers have to arrange the educational work and divide the classes in different groups. The differences between the mental abilities and capabilities are decided by intelligence.
In education it is necessary to study the personality differences. Many methods are used for obtaining the knowledge of personality differences. Psychologists have made different tests for the measurement of personality differences. Intelligence tests have been prepared for the measurement of intelligence. Intelligence tests help in the solution of many problems related to education, so it is necessary to obtain knowledge about them.

History of Intelligence Tests

It is evident after describing the meaning, nature, kinds and theories of intelligence that psychologists define the intelligence as the ability of learning, ability of rumination and the ability of adjustment.

The credibility of intelligence and its connection goes to personality differences. In 1796 in Greenwich astrological laboratory, a man named Kinnerbrooke was appointed as an assistant supervisor. He studied the movement of stars, planets with the help of telescope and calculated the time. His speed was slow, so he was fired from the job. After some time astrologers pondered on this event and found out that every man has different ability and capability. So they developed the thought of personality equation.

In the modern times, scientific studies related to intelligence tests were started in Europe. The famous German Psychologist, Wundt established first laboratory of psychology in 1879. In this laboratory intelligence test was done on the scientific basis. Here the measurement of intelligence was done by the instrument. Being encouraged by the work of Wundt, the psychologists of other countries also started doing work related to intelligence tests. In this relation Alfred Binet of France, Thorndike and Terman of America have done works that worth mentioning. Other psychologists as Galton, Cattell and Pearson have also invented many intelligence tests, but these tests measured common mental activities, so these cannot be called intelligence tests. In this field the first and prominent was Alfred Binet. In 1950 Binet prepared exercise for the intelligence test of different ages’ children with the help of psychologist Simon, which was called ‘Binet-Simon Scale’. Binet Simon Tests were considered in different countries. Then after 1908 Binet Simon Scale was improved in America and Europe. Terman in America corrected the name of Binet Simon Scale between 1913 and 1916 and kept its name Stanford Binet Scale. In 1937 Terman, in India, made some improvement in it with the help of Merril and kept its name Terman-Merril Scale. These tests are used for the measurement of intelligence for the children in America and India. Even in Indian psychologists’ laboratory, Allahabad corrected Binet Simon tests for the Indian children. In India Dr. Sohanlal, Dr. Jalota, P. Lajjashanker Jha and Dr. Bhatia etc have prepared different tests.

Kinds of Intelligence Tests

Different psychologists have prepared different tests for the measurement of intelligence. It is evident from the study of intelligence tests’ History that many intelligence tests had been prepared even before Binet in which Cattell’s intelligence test was also present, but Binet, with the help of Simon in 1905 prepared an intelligence test, which has a scientific basis and which was used in different countries as a first famous intelligence test. Although after improving many things it has been given a new look yet many intelligence tests have been prepared in comparison of it. Today many intelligence tests are present, for the measurement of intelligence. If we put light on the kinds of intelligence tests, they can be divided between two groups:
 (a) Personal or community intelligence test
 (b) Verbal or non-verbal intelligence test

Intelligence test can be divided into four parts by the combination of above two groups:

  1. Personal translation intelligence test
  2. Personal non-verbal intelligence test
  3. Community verbal intelligence test
  4. Community non-verbal intelligence test
It is necessary to understand the differences and the nature of both groups before describing the different kinds of intelligence tests:

(a) Personal or community intelligence test—Personal intelligence test includes the testing of one man at a time, on the contrary, when many people are tested together at one time, it is called community intelligence test. Personal and community intelligence tests have some differences which are following:

Difference between personal and community intelligence tests

Following differences are found in the personal and community intelligence test
We can say after the above description that personality test is better in comparison of community test. Personality test needs more money, time and trained man, so community tests are used mostly. But as far as the question of validity and reliability, personality tests are appropriate.

(b) Verbal or Non-Verbal Intelligence Test—Language is used in the verbal intelligence test. Many questions are collected together in a small book in this test. In the verbal test words and digits are mostly used. In this test it is necessary for a man to have knowledge of language and digits. In non-verbal intelligence test language is not used. Some indications are indicated for doing some work in this test, so it is also called ‘Performance Test’. Performance intelligence tests are used for the people who do not have the knowledge of language or illiterate. Mostly non-verbal or performance intelligence tests are in the form of personality tests.

Difference between verbal or non-verbal intelligence test

In verbal or non-verbal intelligence test, following differences are found
Now it will be appropriate to briefly describe the four groups of intelligence tests that emerge from these two broad categories:

1. Personal verbal intelligence test—One man is tested at a time in the personal verbal intelligence test. It is necessary for a man to know the language which is used in the test. Specific personality verbal intelligence test are following:

(a) Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale—Binet developed an intelligence test with the support of his companion Simon in the effort of recognizing weak students, which was published in 1905. Binet test is considered first among the successful intelligence tests. In 1908 and 1911, both tried to make it complete after doing corrections in it. This test is known with the name of Binet-Simon Scale test.

In Binet-Simon Scale test Intelligence is done on the basis of mental age. Some questions are given to know the mental age each year. The child who responds correctly to the entire questionnaire for the determining age, his mental age is calculated, for example, if five years child gives correct answers of the questions determined for four years’ age, his mental age is considered to be four years, but if he answers correctly to the questions determined for the seven years, his mental age will be considered seven years. In the comparison of real age, if the mental age is more, the child will be considered more intelligent. This type of intelligence measurement is expressed as intelligence quotient. To know the intelligence quotient methods are given. Binet- Simon intelligence test was decided for 3 to 15 years old girls/boys, four questions were determined for 4 years’ child and no questions were determined for 11 to 13 years age. For three years’ age, following questions were determined:

  • Tell your name.
  • Point your mouth, nose and ear with your hand.
  • After seeing a picture tell some important things.
  • Repeat easy sentence of six words.
  • Repeat two digits after hearing once. As 2-3, 3-7, 6-8 etc.
It was found in the final studies that Binet-Simon Scale had many faults. The main fault was if any child could not answer the questions determined for his age, his mental was considered less than his real age. 

(b) Stanford Binet Scale—In spite of having many faults in Stanford Binet-Scale, it became world famous and got success in getting the attention of popular psychologists. To make Binet-Simon intelligence Scale free of faults, Cyril Burt of England and Lewin M. Terman of America, who were professors of psychology in Stanford University, did important work in 1916. Thus improved intelligence test is known by the name of ‘Stanford Binet-Scale’. While doing correction Terman made it fault-less with the help of his friend Maud A. Merrill in 1937 and again in 1960. 90 questions were put in place of 54 exercises of Binet in this corrected intelligence test, in which, some questions of Binet were also included. The intelligence of boys and girls of 2 to 14 years of age is measured by this scale. In this test two months were decided for the correct answer of each question for the age till 13, four months for the age till 14, and five months were decided for normal adult. On the basis of the answers of the questions of this exercise, mental age is known. And decision is given about the measurement of intelligence in the ratio to his real age. For example, in the exercise of Stanford Binet for the age of three years the list of determining questions is followings:

  • Telling the name of his family.
  • To say about itself whether boy or girl (sex knowledge).
  • Repeat the sentence of 6 to 7 words.
  • Telling about his mouth, nose, ears etc with his finger.
  • Seeing the knife, Scissors and keys etc, to tell their name.
  • Seeing any picture, telling its important things.
Through the above mentioned questionnaire Binet – Simon and Stanford – Binet Scale IQ differences can be seen.

2. Personality Non-Verbal Intelligence Test—Personality nonverbal intelligence tests are for those who do not have language related knowledge. Pictures, things and figures are used in place of language. This type of intelligence is also called performance intelligence, because answers are given in it in a performing way. Important nonverbal intelligence tests are following:

(a) Picture Drawing—This test is appropriate for the child from 4 to 10 years. Paper and pencil is given to the child, he is asked to draw the picture of a cow. In this test, marks are given on the basis of the completeness of the picture.

(b) Picture Completing Test—In this test in front of the child picture is given cutting in square in shape, and said to them, after collecting make a complete picture.

(c) Maze Test—In this test, child is given such a picture which has many ways to reach to a destination. The children, who reach there without any difficulty, are considered intelligent.
(d) Form Board Test—In it, there is a board of wood in which, the holes of different shapes are made, as circular, semi-circular, triangular and quadrangular etc. The pieces that have been cut out have to be fixed in proper places. The child, who puts the proper pieces in proper places within proper time, is considered intelligent.

(e) Performance Group–Test made by Dr. Alexander—Alexander has invented a Battery after assembling up three test for the measurement of intelligence. This battery has following three tests:

I. Kohas Block Design Test—In this test, there are sixteen colorful cubes of one inch and ten designs. These designs are prepared upon the piece of card-board with the same color. Child has to jumble up all the cubes in such a way that design is made. Child has to jumble up all the cubes in many ways for different designs.
II. Cube Construction Test—This test has three parts:

  • In the first part, there is a big model Block of 3” × 1” × 1”. Its four surfaces are of red colors and upper and lower surface are simple. Apart from this, there are 9 cubes made of 1 inch. Its surfaces are colorful. Arranging the small boxes the shape of the model block is obtained. 
  • In the second part of the model block, only the lower surface is not colorful. There are 9 cubes of 1 inch cube in it, whose surfaces are colorful. It is asked to them to prepare the shape of model block by jumbling them up.
  • In the third part there is a colorless cube of two inches and cubes of 8 cubes of 1 inch, out of which three surfaces are colorful. Assembling up, all these small cubes have to be put in a shape.
III. Pas Along-Test—In this test, there are 8 square or rectangular pieces of red or yellow color. These have to be moved without lifting that the required design is obtained. There are eight designs in this test.

(f) Object Assembling Test—Wacksler test is famous among this kind of tests. A human figure is divided in to many in it and child has to prepare a complete human figure after assembling the different parts.

(g) Bhatia Battery—The founder of Bhatia battery is Chandra Mohan Bhatia. It is also made for the measurement of intelligence in Indian situation. In this Battery, there is a assembling of five tests, which are following:

  • Kohas Block design test
  • Alexander pass along test
  • Pattern drawing test
  • Immediate memory test 
  • Picture creativity test
In the above test, there is limitation of time. Only 45 minutes are given for the responses. Students can answer the questions as early they want. On the basis of it, the speed of person is also tested along with the intelligence. In the tests where time is limited, they are called time limited test

Some tests don’t have time limitation. Student can take long time for responding the questions. In this test, it is also seen how accurate work a student can do along with the intelligence.

3. Community Verbal Intelligence Test—language is more used in it. In this test many questions that are collected in a small book. In the verbal test words and digits are used mostly. Children’s verbal ability is measured by these tests. 

Group verbal intelligence test was developed during the time of First World War, because armies were to be selected within the short span of time. The main tests of this group are following:

(a) Army Alpha Test—This is for the people who know English. This test was developed in America for selecting officers, supporting staff and soldiers in large number during the time of World War I. It seems that the subject material of this test has been taken from the Stanford-Binet Test. 

(b) Army General Classification—Army general classification had been prepared for the classification of army for the different divisions during World War II in America. In this test, there are three kinds of problems, As-Vocabulary, Maths and the problems related to the counting. This test was used for conducting the intelligence test for about of 12 lacs applicants.

In the field of collective intelligence test, notable efforts have been done in India. In which, Dr Mohanlal’s B.P.T 12, B.P.T 13, B.P.T 14 are for the age of 12, 13,14. Dr. Jalota’s and Dr. Joshi’s tests are considered important. Besides it many intelligence tests have been prepared by Psychologists’ Laboratory, Uttar Pradesh which are for the classes of eight, ninth and tenth standard.

4. Group Nonverbal Intelligence Test—Language is not used in it. In this test the picture of any animal is made and mistakes are to be found in the given picture. Terman, Thomson, Hangto, Balard and Cattell etc. psychologists gave essential contribution in the construction of intelligence test. Ballard’s saying in this relation—“To find out fools and not to plough donkey with bull and to place capable person on the right position is possible with this plan.” This type of test is applied for many men together without using language. This group’s noted tests are following:

(a) Army Beta Test—Army beta test was also developed during the time of First World War in America for the fulfillment of purpose like Army Alpha test. The selection for the various positions for different divisions in the army was to be done from the people who were illiterate or had no knowledge of English language. Hence this method was adopted to find out the people with relative intelligence among the people with no knowledge of English language. Intelligence is measured in this method by counting of the articles, telling the relation between two articles with respect to the printed figure, and marking the elements of the figure which do not correspond to these articles at all etc. problem resolving.

(b) Chicago Non-verbal Test—Chicago non-verbal test is used for the age from 6 years boys or girls till the adulthood. It has proved more useful for the intelligence test of the age of 13 years. In this test, many working instruction are given, as telling the equality or inequality in different shapes, completing the picture after assembling the separated pieces of the picture, counting the things with the help of wooden pieces and recognizing the same things among the different things and putting them in different classes.

Besides the above in the group verbal intelligence test, Cattle’s cultural independence test and Pigeon’s non-verbal test have important place, where different kinds of shapes are shown and similarities or differences have to be shown in those shapes.

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