Experimental Method of Educational Psychology

Experimental Method is the blessing of natural science, by which cause and effect relationship is studied in the best way. In modern social psychology the use of this method is growing day by day. In this method the social behavior is also studied in real situation, that differs from laboratory. These are called field experiments. Some main definitions are following:

  1. Rathos—‘’Experiment is a method of scientific investigation that seeks to discover cause and effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables’’.
  2. Garrett—‘’Experiment is observation under controlled conditions.’’
  3. Townsend—‘’No experiment is better than its poorest control.’’
  4. Jahoda—‘’Experiment is a method of testing hypotheses.’’
  5. Festiger—‘’The essence of experiment may be described as observing the effect on a dependent variable of the manipulation of an independent variable.’’
  6. Chaplin—‘’Experiment is a series of observations carried out under controlled conditions for testing the hypotheses."

On the basis of above definitions it could be said that experimental method under which, according to the plan manipulating variables are studied under controlled condition. In this method action is called dependent variables and cause is called independent variables.

There are many factors to affect anybody’s behavior. Student selects some of these factors, and controlling the rest of factors, the affect of selected factors on person are studied. The selected factors are called independent Variables, controlled factors are called Intervening Variables. During the experiment time the effect of manipulating variables on the action is noticed. At last, analyzing hypotheses of obtained data are verified. There are minimum two study groups in experimental study one of them is called controlled and other is experimental group.

Characteristics of Experiment

The qualities of Experiment are following:
  1. Under it the condition is directly inspected.
  2. Under it Experimental conditions are controlled.
  3. Under it Cause-effect relationship are studied.
  4. Hypotheses are verified by it.
  5. Under it the effect of dependent variable on the independent variable is studied.
  6. Under controlled condition the observation of the effect of any factor is called experiment.
  7. Under it controlling the external factor the effect of the experimental variable is studied.
  8. The main qualities of experiment are-the uses of controlled condition, the effect of observation, the pure measurement of effect.

Steps of Experimental Method

The steps of Experimental Method are following:
  1. Problem—Under it student selects any one problem. He can use his previous works, review to the related literature, study of the present work, exchanges of ideas from the specialist etc. Sometimes he himself selects the burning problem.
  2. Review of the Related literature—After reviewing the literature he wants to know, on this problem how many scholars, ‘how and what ‘results have been obtained, and when these studies have completed?
  3. Formulation of hypothesis—On the basis of review literature he does the formulation of hypothesis. By making hypothesis the problem is pin pointed.
  4. Variables—Under this inventor decides that how many variables he has to take and how will he recognize and control the intervening variables.
  5. Sample—Under this it is decided that who will belong to study group and how much large it will be. Sample selection is done by some special method.
  6. Tools and Materials—It is decided that which kinds of tools will be needed to collect the data. Sometimes he himself has to construct the tools.
  7. Control of Variables—under this scientist, after controlling the mediator variables, gets the pure data.
  8. Procedure—under this scientist accumulates the short description of his whole plan.
  9. Result—Conclusion is obtained after analyzing the obtained data and it verifies the hypotheses.
  10. Discussion and Generalization—Explaining the obtained data, Psychologist compares his results with the results of other Psychologists. At last on the basis of statistical method he generalizes his result.

Difference between Laboratory Experiment and Field Experiment

In laboratory experiment it has been seen that it is known to patient that experiment is on him. Then his behavior is not natural. Along with the effect of artificial situation of laboratory, pure result is also not obtained. Due to these reason field Experiments have been developed. It does not mean that Field experiments are faultless. The biggest boundary of the Field Experiments is, that the manipulation of variables are difficult than that of Laboratory Experiment.

Advantages—The advantages of this method are following:
  1. Cause-effect relationship is studied with more purity.
  2. This method is pure and brief in comparison of other methods.
  3. This method is the best method of hypotheses test.
  4. This method is most predominant scientific method.
  5. The result obtained by this method, is subjective, incredible, legal, and sovereign.
  6. By this method, doing real test, true data and facts can be collected.
  7. Conclusion got by this method can be re-verified in the same condition.
  8. This method proves helpful in maintaining relationship between S-O-R.
  9. With the help of this method many education related problems can be solved.
  10. Under it, user is always active.
De-merits—there is also some de-merits in this method which are following:
  1. It is impossible to do pure experiment.
  2. It is a difficult job to manipulate variables.
  3. Experimental method cannot be used successfully in the field experiment.
  4. Patient does not corporate in using this method.
  5. This method cannot be used in studying the various aspects of life.
  6. This method is more expensive in comparison of other method.
  7. In this method instability comes in the behavior of patient.
  8. It does not seem possible to study all kinds of events by this method.
  9. Not accepting this method as a independent method, this method is considered as a collection of many methods.
  10. Trained persons are needed in this method.
Conclusion—The results obtained by this method are truer, credible, and scientific than that of others obtained results. Its conclusion can be verified, on the basis of these, rules and principles can be prepared. Thus, this is a scientific method. In spite of having many de-merits, this method has been considered as the best method of research by Psychologists.

Case History Method

Case History Method was developed, almost four hundred years before the birth of Christ, to study the problematic children. This method is also used to collect the man related information. This method was established in the well organized manner in the last stage of tenth century. In the field of law this method was mostly used. After this, this method was adopted for use in the field of medical, Psychology and Education. The origin of this method is not old in the field of education. Teachers did not consider teaching as their main profession till now, they did not consider it important to take interest in student., but because of, in the field of education, direction, personality difference, mental health,etc, now it has become necessary to understand every student. By Case History method, the qualities, behavior, and mental development of anybody is studied. In one way Case History Method is a collection of all achieved facts, related to person.

Case history method is like a history of person. It has also been accepted as a personality measurement method. Meeting his friends, family members and others relatives, when we collect information related to any person, his life history, his domestic responsibility, interest, needs, his activities, information related to his health, all this comes under this case history method. We get a general introduction of a person by this. This is also an effective method of measurement. But its credibility is not trusted very much, because under it the information sources are such as, they do not deliver information correctly. The objective of case history method is to find out Adjustment-Problems. This method proves useful in mental hospitals. Teacher can also use cumulative record cards in the history of person. Sometimes Psychologist tries to know this, that he gets some facts from the teacher in relation of student. Psychologist or social reformer tries to know in history the following things-As name, address, domestic responsibility, occupation, material relationship, the qualities of personality although Case History Method can not be made the remedy of diseases and the basis of medical, yet it helps. This method is used to understand the uncommon people and children. 

Crow and Crow—The purpose of case history is predominantly diagnostic. The merit and demerits of this method are the following:


  1. This method can be used in treatment education. This method is used in the treatment and the study of dull, backward, and mentally ill children. 
  2. Many facts are gathered from the various sources comprehensively. Therefore the conclusion can be trusted. 


  1. Clinical specialists are needed to use this method. Therefore this method is expensive too. 
  2. This method takes more time and money and labor. Therefore it is difficult to use this method in our country. 


  • Educational Psychology studies of the human behavior and various problems, under the educational situation. This study is done by one method. Method means the system and way, which helps us in getting a conclusion, after doing the study, analysis and explanation of human behavior. Now educational Psychology has been put in the category of science, it has followed the scientific method for its works by ignoring imagination, guess and superstitions.
  • The methods of Psychological study can be divided between two groups—(1) Internal or Subjective Method— Under this method person analyses and explains his own behavior, as in the Introspection and anecdotal method. (2) Outer and Objective Methods—In this method ,facts are collected by others. There are many methods under it.

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