Construction of Attitude Scale

Attitudes and their Measuring Methods have already been discussed. No doubt knowledge about Attitude and their measurement have an important place in traditional sciences like Education Science, Psychology and Social Science. To measure attitude, usually attitude scales are used. Here we are describing some main and mostly usable methods in preparing of Attitude Scales. We hope the readers will be able to get the knowledge and skill of some different methods of preparing attitude scale and will be able to prepare attitude scale.

Steps of Attitude Scale Construction

Because Attitude Scale is a collection of statements, therefore like any other scaled psychological experiment, in attitude scale also, very carefully prepared, edited and selected statements are included. Four main steps are followed in the preparation of any scalable attitude scale like other scalable instruments: (i) planning for Attitude Scale, (ii) prepare Attitude statements, (iii) selection of attitude statements, and (iv) evaluate attitude scale. According to the first step, planning for Scale Attitude, the suffix is defined very clearly, the nature of scale, time duration of administration, number of statements included and methods of selection of statements are decided. In the second step of preparing scale, attitude statements are prepared. Statements which can correctly express the Attitude which is to be scaled are prepared for measuring scales. The person, preparing scale, can prepare some statements himself, while for preparing the rest statements he can take help from the published editorials, articles in the newspapers, articles published in related magazines, subject matter of books, consult an expert and can also have a conversation with them and also talk to the common people. Hints can also be taken for preparing attitude statements, from conscious and experts on the related subject, and also they can be asked for a speech or write about their opinions, views and feelings.
Attitude at the time of the creation of the following statements must be noted:

  1. Attitude statement must have a relation with present situations, not with past.
  2. In Attitude statements the factual statements should not be included.
  3. Those statements should not be made which have more than one meaning or have any confusion at all.
  4. Only those statements should be made which have a relation with psychological object.
  5. When there is possibility of manifestation of same opinion from almost everyone, such statements should not be made. 
  6. Those statements should be made in which the desired thing or person can take the entire range of Attitude within itself.
  7. The language of statements should be clear, easy and direct as possible and the also the meaning of such words should be definite.
  8. The statements should be as short as possible. The scale-maker should make effort to make sentences within 15 to 20 words.
  9. One complete idea should be used in every statement.
  10. Words like every time, always, all, nobody, never creates ambiguity. So these words should not be used.
  11. While writing statements words like only, never, sometimes should be used with precautions.
  12. The expressions should be in simple sentence instead of compound or complex sentence.
  13. The words should not be used in statements which are not known by the readers and students on which attitude scale is to be applied.
  14. Avoid from double-negation statements.
After the involvement of probable statements in the attitude scale, pre-tryout is done to remove the ambiguity and confusion from the language of statements. In the process of pre-tryout the statements are read by some people, and after understanding the problems, confusion or unclearness faced by them, corrections are made. Now the third but the most important aspect of construction of Scaling starts. In this step, of all the probable statements, the most appropriate are included in the final draft. As the quality of scale depends on the quality of statements so this step is termed as the most important step. Many techniques are invented by the psychologists to select the statements. As it is discussed earlier, the process of scaling of attitude is divided into two categories— Scaled Statement Methods and Scaled Response Methods. Both of these methods are two different approaches have been measured statements or responses. Primarily in Scaled Statement Methods, the Thurston’s Method of Paired Comparison, Thurston’s and Chave’s Method of Equal Appearing Intervals, Sufeer’s Method of Successive Intervals are included. The Likert Method of Summated Ratings is highly prevailed in Scaled Response Methods. In addition, Guttman Method of Cumulative Scale which is also known as Scalogram Method and Edwards and Kilpatrick’s Scale Discrimination Methods are also popular. After selecting the appropriate statements the selected expressions are organized in the form of measurement. Then the general guidelines and the way to react is finalized by the ruler ruler and set the desired number of copies are made.

After the preparation of last draft of the Scale, the last grade of scaling means the evaluation of scale comes. in this step the reliability, validity, and measures are found for the scale. The reliability of attitude measuring scale can be known through test-retest methods, simultaneous method (if the second similar grade is prepared) from one of them or by using many methods. The coefficient of 80 or more than 80 is normally considered as a reliable Attitude Measuring. Legal subject matter, legal concurrent or legal construe method can be determined for Scale. For a measurement of Attitude normally centi norms, Z categorized norms, T categorized norms, stanines, one of them or more appropriate norms can be prepared. The last work of manufacturer of scale is to prepare manual of attitude measuring scale. All the information is included in manufacturing of scale given in manual. The people interested in using these scales can get the related inquiry about making of scale with the help of the manual.

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